Cambridge IELTS 11, Test 4, Reading Passage 1: Research Using Twins, Solution With Answer Key

Research Using Twins Passage Solution with Answer Key – Cambridge IELTS 11 Test 4 Reading Passage 1. Here we will discuss detailed explanation of all the questions of the passage. Here is step by step Solution with Tips and Strategies. This post is for educational purpose only. If you find difficulties in reading passage to find the right answer in the exam, just read the post carefully. Tips and strategies will help you find the right answer.


Research Using Twins

IELTS Reading Passage Solution


IELTS Cambridge 11, Test 4  Academic Reading Module, Reading Passage 1


PASSAGE 1: Research Using Twins (View Full Passage Here)

Questions 1-4: (TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN):

** Tips (link details): How To Solve True, False, Not Given in IELTS Reading Module?


Question 1: There may be genetic causes for the differences in how young the skin of identical twins looks.
Keywords: may be, genetic cause, differences, young, skin,
Now, in the first paragraph, line 8-11.  “Any differences between them – one twin having younger looking skin, for example – must be due to environmental factors such as less time spent in the sun.” It means the differences are because of the environment, not for genetic causes.
Answer: FALSE

Question 2: Twins are at greater risk of developing certain illnesses than non-twins.
Keywords: greater risk, developing certain illnesses,
Now,  in the second paragraph, “If identical twins are more similar to each other with respect to an ailment than fraternal twins are, then vulnerability to the disease must be rooted at least in part in heredity. Unfortunately, the sentence starts with ‘if’, which means
the writer only compares identical twins with fraternal twins, he doesn’t make a comparison between twins and non-twins.
Answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 3: Bouchard advertised in newspapers for twins who had been separated at birth.
Keywords: Bouchard, advertised, newspapers,
Now, in paragraph 3 and 4, we find reference to the groundbreaking research on twins. However, nowhere in the paragraph we find any reference to advertisement in newspapers.

Question 4: Epigenetic processes are different from both genetic and environmental processes.
Keywords: Epigenetic, different from, genetic and environmental,
Now, inn paragraph 6, “… .. .nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work. According to a recent field called epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play, one that in some cases serves as a bridge between the environment and our genes.” In the previous paragraphs, genetic and environmental processes (nature and nurture) have been explained. Now, in paragraph 6 this line means
that the epigenetic process works as a bridge between those two processes. It means it is neither a genetic process nor an environmental process.
Answer: TRUE



Questions 5-9: (Matching statements with a list of researchers)

** Tips (link details): How To Solve Matching Statements With Correct Theory In IELTS Reading?

Question 5: invented a term used to distinguish two factors affecting human characteristics
Keywords: invented a term, distinguish, characteristics
Now, the phrase “invented a term” is synonymous to ‘coined the phrase’. It means saying something special that
no one used this way before. Remember the saying, “Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee” by the greatest
boxer Mohammad Ali. He coined the phrase.
So, for this question, we need to find ‘coined the phrase’ and we find it in paragraph no. 4. Here, the writer
says, “The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English
scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase ‘nature and nurture’.)”
Answer: A (Francis Galton)

Question 6: expressed the view that the study of epigenetics will increase our knowledge
Keywords: study of epigenetics, will increase, knowledge
Now, in paragraph 12 lines 1-3. Here, we find the comments or views of Geneticist Danielle Reed. “Reed adds, the latest work in epigenetics promises to take our understanding even further”. This means that Reed is hopeful that the study of epigenetics will give us
a better understanding or knowledge.
Answer: C (Danielle Reed)

Question 7: developed a mathematical method of measuring genetic influences.
Keywords: developed, mathematical method, measuring genetic influences
Now, in paragraph 5, “Bouchard and his colleagues used this mountain of data to identify how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup. The key to their approach was a statistical concept called heritability. In broad terms, the heritability of a trait measures the extent to which differences among members of a population can be explained by differences in their genetics”.
Here, statistical concept = mathematical method;
Answer: B (Thomas Bouchard)

Question 8: pioneered research into genetics using twins
Keywords: pioneered, research, genetics, twins
Now, in paragraph 4 line 1-4, “The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach. .. . . .”. Here, the phrase “first suggested” means that Francis Galton was the first person or the
pioneer to use twins to measure the influence of heredity.
Answer: A (Francis Galton)

Question 9: carried out research into twins who had lived apart
Keywords: carried out, research, twins who had lived apart,
Now, find the Keyword ‘twins who had lived apart’ which can be found in paragraph no. 4, lines 6-10, “… .. twin studies took a surprising twist in the 1980s, with the arrival of studies into identical twins who had been separated at birth and reunited as adults. Over two decades 137 sets of twins eventually visited Thomas Bouchard’s lab….”
Answer: B (Thomas Bouchard)



Question 10-13: (Summary completion using the list of words)

** Tips (link details): How To Solve Completing Summaries with and without a Wordlist in IELTS Reading Module?

Question 10 and 11: In epigenetic processes, 10 __________ influence the activity of our genes, for example in creating our internal 11 ____________.
Keywords: epigenetic process, influence, activity of our genes, creating, our internal,
Now, in paragraph 7. You need to read the whole paragraph. In line 1 and 2, what epigenetic processes are. “Epigenetic processes are chemical reactions .. .. . ..” Then in the last few lines of the paragraph, the writer explains what these chemical reactions influence, “These reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed: how each gene is strengthened or weakened; even turned on or off, to build our bones, brains and all other parts of our bodies.”
So, it can be deduced or realized from these lines that ‘chemical’ reactions influence how our internal body parts are created such as ‘our bones, brains’ etc.
Answers: 10. D (chemicals); 11. B (organs)

Question 12: The study of epigenetic processes is uncovering a way in which our genes can be affected by our ________.
Keywords: uncovering a way, our genes can be affected,
Now, in paragraph 9, lines 1-5, “One way the study of epigenetics is revolutionizing our understanding of biology is by revealing a mechanism by which the environment directly impacts our genes.”
Here, the word ‘impact’ is synonymous to ‘affected’, ‘revealing’ is synonymous to ‘uncovering a way’.
Answer: E (environment)

Question 13: One example is that if a pregnant rat suffers stress, the new-born rat may show problems in its ____________.
Keywords: pregnant rat, suffers stress,
Now, in paragraph 9, lines 5-9, “Studies of animals, for example, have shown that when a rat experiences stress during
pregnancy, it can cause epigenetic changes in a fetus that lead to behavioral problems as the rodent grows up.”
Answer: F (behavior/ behavior)



View Full Passage Here



Answer Key – Research Using Twins

Cambridge IELTS 11 Test 4 Answer Key, Reading Passage 1


Research Using Twins Reading Passage Answers Keys

Passage 1





5. A

6. C

7. A

8. B

9. B

10. D

11. B

12. E

13. F




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