Cambridge IELTS 12, Test 6, Reading Passage 1: The Risks Agriculture Faces in Developing Countries, Solution With Answer Key

The Risks Agriculture Faces in Developing Countries Passage Solution with Answer Key – Cambridge IELTS 12, Test 6: Reading Passage 1. Here we will discuss detailed explanation of all the questions of the passage. Here is step by step Solution with Tips and Strategies. This post is for educational purpose only. If you find difficulties in reading passage to find the right answer in the exam, just read the post carefully. Tips and strategies will help you find the right answer.


The Risks Agriculture Faces in Developing Countries

IELTS Reading Passage Solution


IELTS Cambridge 12, Test 6, Academic Reading Module, Reading Passage 1


PASSAGE 1: The Risks Agriculture Faces in Developing Countries

Question 1-3 (identifying information OR, information matching):

** Tips (Link Details): How To Solve Information Matching or Locating Paragraph In IELTS Reading Module?

Question 1: a reference to characteristics that only apply to food production.

Keywords: characteristics, only, food production
Now, we have to find paragraphs which contain information about “food production”. We can see this phrase (food production) in paragraph A and paragraph E. In paragraph E, “food production” is just mentioned as an example of the benefits of public welfare programmes, while in paragraph A, we can see the first sentence: “Two things distinguish food production from all other productive activities: first, every single person needs food each day and has a right to it; and second, it is hugely dependent on nature.” The verb “distinguish” means “to make one thing seem different from another”. Therefore, we can understand that these two things mentioned above only belong to food production. All of this information lies in paragraph A. The answer is A.
Answer: A.

Question 2: a reference to challenges faced only by farmers in certain parts of the world.

Keywords: challenges, only, farmers in certain parts

Now, paragraph B mentions difficulties farmers have to face. The first sentence is about problems met in everywhere in the world. The second sentence is about challenges that only farmers in developing countries have to deal with, “However, small holder farmers in developing countries must in addition deal with adverse environments, both natural, in terms of soil quality, rainfall, etc. and human, in terms of infrastructure, financial systems, markets, knowledge and technology”. The term “developing countries” refers to “certain parts of the world”. Therefore, the answer is B.

 Answer: B.

Question 3: a reference to difficulties in bringing about co-operation between farmers

Keywords: difficulties, co-operation between farmers.​

Now, in terms of co-operation, the author mentions some kinds of co-operative groups of farmers such as collective action groups, co-operatives or producers’ groups in the second sentence of paragraph H. Collective actions mean actions shared by every member of a group of people, which refers to co-operation between people in a group. He/ she not only names the groups but also claims that those actions do not come as a free good. It takes time, effort and money to organise, build trust and to experiment.” Those are considered as difficulties in taking collective actions. Therefore, the answer is H.
 Answer: H.



Question 4-9 (matching statements with list of people):

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Question 4: Financial assistance from the government does not always go to the farmers who most need it

Keywords: financial assistance from the government

Now, this is a difficult question since you have to know that “state subsidies” refers to “financial assistance from the government”. And this phrase lies in paragraph E. In this paragraph, the author mentions Rokeya Kabir as she claims that these state subsidies ‘have not compensated for the stranglehold exercised by private traders”. To make it more clear, the author writes; “sixty percent of beneficiaries of subsidies are not poor, but rich land owners and non-farmer traders.” (when the subsidies go to some people, those people are called beneficiaries. And the writer claims some are non-farmers). Therefore, this information is matched with Rokeya Kabir. The answer is D.

Here, State subsidies = financial assistance from the government.
Answer: D

Question 5: Farmers can benefit from collaborating as a group.

Keywords: benefit, collaborate, as a group.​

Now, “Collaborate” means “to work with someone else for a special purpose”, which refers to collective actions of farmers. Therefore, we have to pay attention to paragraph H, which contains that information (as we already know when doing question 3). In the first sentence of this paragraph, the writer says that “According to Murphy, ‘collective action offers an important way for farmers to strengthen their political and economic bargaining power. “Strengthen their political and economic bargaining power” is a way of benefiting. Therefore, the answer is Murphy – B.

Here, Collective actions = collaborate as a group
Answer: B

Question 6: Financial assistance from the government can improve the standard of living of farmers.

Keywords: financial assistance from the government, standard of living, farmers.

Now, this question is about the same issue as question 4, so we turn back to paragraph E. The first sentence of this paragraph mentions Shennge Fan, who considers “safety nets and public welfare programmes” as “valuable ways to address poverty among farming families and reduce their vulnerability to agriculture shocks”. “Public welfare programmes” are programmes that provide financial assistance. “Adress poverty” means to “improve the standard of living”. Therefore, the answer is C – Shenggen Fan.
Answer: C

Question 7: Farmers may be helped if there is financial input by the same individuals who buy from them.

Keywords: financial input, same individuals, buy

Now, in paragraph I, we find a reference to “One commentator suggested farmers can gain greater control over prices and minimise price volatility by selling directly to consumers”. This commentator is named as Sonali Bisht. Her experience is of India, where “consumers invest in local farmers by subscription and guarantee producers a fair price..” Selling directly to consumers means that the same individuals who buy from the farmers also pay the farmers.
Therefore, the answer is G, Sonali Bisht.

 Answer: G

Question 8: Governments can help to reduce variation in prices.

Keywords: governments, reduce, variation in prices.
In paragraph D, the author mentions the role of governments. While Kanayo F. Nwanze suggests governments can provide basic services, Sophia Murphy thinks that governments can “help mitigate wild swings in food prices”. “Mitigate” is the same meaning as “reduce the effect of something”, and “wild swings in prices” refers to “variation in prices”. Therefore, the answer is Sophia Murphy – B. (Note: You may use any letter more than once.)

Here, Mitigate = reduce; Wild swings = variation

Answer: B


Question 9: Improvements to infrastructure can have a major impact on risk for farmers.

Keywords: improvements to infrastructure, major impact, risk for farmers.

Now, regarding infrastructure and risks, we saw these issues in paragraph D when doing question 8. “Basic services like roads” refers to infrastructure. Kanayo F. Nwanze argues that by improving those services, they can “significantly reduce risks for farmers”, which means this way has “a major impact on risk for farmers”. The answer is A.

Here, Basic services = infrastructure; Significantly = major;

Answer: A.


Question 10-13 (Multiple choice questions for two answers):

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Question 10 and 11. Which TWO problems are mentioned which affect farmers with small farms in developing countries?

Keywords: problems, affect, farmers with small farms, developing countries.

Now, in the first sentence of paragraph G, the author mentions “climate change and its consequences for small-scale agriculture”. “Small-scale agriculture” refers to “farmers with small farms”. We can detect the first problem – climate change and its consequences, which are “the effects of changing weather patterns” – D. Next, “lack of demand for locally produced food” and “lack of irrigation programmes” are not mentioned in the whole passage. “Insurance” is mentioned once in paragraph F, but in terms of “private insurance” as a way to “help small-scale producers mitigate risk”. There is no information relating to “being unable to get insurance”. In paragraph I, the author mentions “the presence of intermediary purchasers”. “Purchasers” refers to “buyers”. Those people, “taking advantage of farmers’ vulnerability, dictate prices.” Because farmers have to sell their goods to these intermediary buyers, these buyers dictate prices. Therefore, the answer is D and E.

Here, small – scale agriculture = farmers with small farms; purchasers = buyers;

Answer: D, E.

Question 12 and 13: Which TWO actions are recommended for improving conditions for farmers?

Keywords: recommended, improving, conditions for farmers

Now, In paragraph H, as we’ve already read that collective actions can be beneficial for farmers. So, this matches with answer C where organizing cooperation …. is mentioned.

In paragraph I, lines 7 and 8 there is a mention of “….community-supported agriculture, where consumers invest in local farmers by
subscription and guarantee producers a fair price, ….” So, this matches with answer D where we nd phrases like encouraging consumers and financial stakes.

Here, Work together = co-operation; Stakeholders = interested parties;

Answer: C, D.



Answer Key – The Risks Agriculture Faces in Developing Countries

Cambridge IELTS 12 Test 6 Answer Key, Reading Passage 1


The Risks Agriculture Faces in Developing Countries Reading Passage Answers Keys

Passage 1

1. A

2. B

3. H

4. D

5. B

6. C

7. G

8. B

9. A

10. D

11. E

12. C

13. D



View Full Passage Here: 




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