Cambridge IELTS 13, Test 4, Reading Passage 3: Book Review, Solution With Answer Key
Book Review Passage Solution with Answer Key – Cambridge IELTS 13, Test 4: Reading Passage 3. Here we will discuss detailed explanation of all the questions of the passage. Here is step by step Solution with Tips and Strategies. This post is for educational purpose only. If you find difficulties in reading passage to find the right answer in the exam, just read the post carefully. Tips and strategies will help you find the right answer.
IELTS Reading Passage Solution
IELTS Cambridge 13, Test 4, Academic Reading Module, Reading Passage 3
PASSAGE 3: Book Review
QUESTIONS 27-29: CHOOSE THE CORRECT LETTER, A, B, C, OR D
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Question 27. WHAT IS THE REVIEWER’S ATTITUDE TO ADVOCATES OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY?
Keywords: attitude, advocates, positive psychology
Now, in paragraph 1, the reviewer introduces the beliefs of the ‘advocates of positive psychology’. At the beginning of paragraph 2, we find the reviewer’s opinion of these beliefs: “It is an astonishingly crude and simple-minded way of thinking, and for that very reason increasingly popular. Those who think in this way are oblivious to the vast philosophical literature in which the meaning and value of happiness have been explored, and write as if nothing of any importance had been thought on the subject until it came to their attention”.
The attitude of the reviewer is that advocates of positive philosophy are completely ignorant of all that has been thought and written about happiness by earlier thinkers.
Here, ignorant about = oblivious to
Question 28. THE REVIEWER REFERS TO THE GREEK PHILOSOPHER ARISTOTLE IN ORDER TO SUGGEST THAT HAPPINESS
Keywords: Greek, Aristotle
Now, in in paragraph 2, we find a reference to Aristotle: “For Bentham it was obvious that the human good consists of pleasure and the absence of pain. The Greek philosopher Aristotle may have identified happiness with self-realisation in the 4th century BC and thinkers throughout the ages may have struggled to reconcile the pursuit of happiness with other human values”.
Thus, the reviewer, contrasts the views of Bentham with those of Aristotle. For Aristotle, happiness was not simply the experience of pleasure and the absence of pain – it also consisted of ideas such as self-realisation.
Question 29. ACCORDING TO DAVIES, BENTHAM’S SUGGESTION FOR LINKING THE PRICE OF GOODS TO HAPPINESS WAS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE
Keywords: linking, price, significant
Now, in paragraph 4, Davies writes about Bentham’s views on the connection between price and pleasure/happiness: “…if two different goods have the same price, it can be concluded that they produce the same quantity of pleasure in the consumer….. By associating money so closely to inner experience, Davies writes, Bentham ‘set the stage for the entangling of psychological research and capitalism that would shape the business practices of the twentieth century”.
Here, linking the price of goods to happiness = associating money so closely to inner experience;
– linking = associating;
– a connection between work and psychology = the entangling of psychological research and capitalism;
– work = capitalism/business;
– was significant = set the stage for;
QUESTIONS 30-34: COMPLETE THE SUMMARY USING THE LIST OF WORDS, A-G, BELOW:
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Question 30. IN THE 1790S HE SUGGESTED A TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE ………….. FOR DIFFERENT GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS.
Keywords: 1790s, technology, improve, government departments
Now, in paragraph 3, Davies writes about Bentham’s active interest in other areas, outside philosophy. “In the 1790s, he wrote to the Home Office suggesting that the departments of government be linked together through a set of ‘conversation tubes’…..”
In other words, these ‘conversation tubes’ would ‘link together’ government departments, and improve communication between them.
Here, conversation = communication
Question 31. HE DEVELOPED A NEW WAY OF PRINTING BANKNOTES TO INCREASE………..
Keywords: printing banknotes, increase.
Now, the reference to ‘printing’ and ‘banknotes’ is also in paragraph 3. Bentham suggested a design to the Bank of England: “…for a printing device that could produce unforgeable banknotes”.
If banknotes cannot be forged, then the purpose is to make them more difficult to copy by criminals. This will increase security.
Question 32. ..…AND ALSO DESIGNED A METHOD FOR THE ……………… OF FOOD.
Keywords: method, food
Now, in paragraph 3, we learn that Bentham “…drew up plans for a ‘frigidarium’ to keep provisions such as meat, fish, fruit and vegetables fresh”.
Thus, in order to keep food fresh, the frigidarium was designed to preserve food in cold storage.
Here, designed = drew up plans; food = provisions;
Question 33. HE ALSO DREW UP PLANS FOR A PRISON WHICH ALLOWED THE …………….. OF PRISONERS AT ALL TIMES, AND BELIEVED THE SAME DESIGN COULD BE USED FOR OTHER INSTITUTIONS AS WELL.
Keywords: prison, same design, other institutions
Now, the writer continues in paragraph 3: “His celebrated design for a prison to be known as a ‘Panopticon’, in which prisoners would be kept in solitary confinement while being visible at all times to the guards, was very nearly adopted”. The writer tells us that this ‘Panopticon’ was also designed as an instrument of control that could be used in schools and factories, not only prisons. As the prisoners were visible to the guards, the guards would be able to observe the prisoners at all times. The word required is ‘observable’.
Question 34. WHEN RESEARCHING HAPPINESS, HE INVESTIGATED POSSIBILITIES FOR ITS …………. , AND SUGGESTED SOME METHODS OF DOING THIS.
Keywords: researching, possibilities, methods
Now, at the beginning of paragraph 4, the writer tells us: “Bentham was also a pioneer of the ‘science of happiness’. If happiness is to be regarded as a science, it has to be measured, and Bentham suggested two ways in which this might be done”.
Here, possibilities = ways in which this might be done; methods = ways.
Thus, Bentham suggested ways in which to measure happiness. The word required is ‘measurement’.
QUESTIONS 35-40: DO THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS AGREE WITH THE CLAIMS OF THE WRITER IN READING PASSAGE 3?
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Question 35. ONE STRENGTH OF THE HAPPINESS INDUSTRY IS ITS DISCUSSION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGY AND ECONOMICS
Keywords: strength, relationship, psychology and economics
Now, at the beginning of paragraph 5, we are told about this book in terms of psychology and economics: “The Happiness Industry describes how the project of a science of happiness has become integral to capitalism. We learn much that is interesting about how economic problems are being redefined and treated as psychological maladies”.
So, this book discusses how, in capitalist societies, an attempt has been made to consider economic problems as simply psychological problems. The book is interesting because it shows how this has been done by writers trying to make a ‘science of happiness’. In other words, this is one strong point of the book.
Question 36. IT IS MORE DIFFICULT TO MEASURE SOME EMOTIONS THAN OTHERS
Keywords: more difficult, measure, emotions
The only reference in the passage to measurement and emotions is in paragraph 5. Here, we only learn that: “In addition, Davies shows how the belief that inner states of pleasure and displeasure can be objectively measured has informed management studies and advertising”.
There is no information about the measurement of different emotions and how such measurements can be compared.
Here, emotions = inner states
Answer: NOT GIVEN.
Question 37. WATSON’S IDEAS ON BEHAVIOURISM WERE SUPPORTED BY RESEARCH ON HUMANS HE CARRIED OUT BEFORE 1915.
Keywords: Watson, behaviourism, humans, before 1915.
Now, the ideas of Watson are discussed in paragraph 5. “The tendency of thinkers such as J.B. Watson, the founder of behaviourism, was that human beings could be shaped, or manipulated, by policymakers and managers. Watson had no basis for his view of human action. When he became president of the American Psychological Association in 1915 he ‘had never even studied a single human being’: his research had been confined to experiments on white rats”.
Thus, before 1915, Watson had conducted no research on humans, only on white rats.
Question 38. WATSON’S IDEAS HAVE BEEN MOST INFLUENTIAL ON GOVERNMENTS OUTSIDE AMERICA
Keywords: Watson, influential, outside America
Now, the influence of Watson’s ideas are discussed in paragraph 5. “…Watson’s reductive model is now widely applied, with ‘behaviour change’ becoming the goal of governments”.
Although the writer then continues, giving the example of Britain, there is no reference to Watson’s ideas becoming most influential on governments outside America – we only know that his ideas are ‘widely applied’.
Answer: NOT GIVEN.
Question 39. THE NEED FOR HAPPINESS IS LINKED TO INDUSTRIALISATION
Keywords: need, linked, industrialisation
Now, in the last paragraph, the writer states: “Modern industrial societies appear to need the possibility of ever-increasing happiness to motivate them in their labours”.
Thus, the need for more and more happiness is linked to industrial societies and motivation to work.
Here, industrialisation = industrial societies
Question 40. A MAIN AIM OF GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE TO INCREASE THE HAPPINESS OF THE POPULATION
Keywords: aim, government, increase, population
It is stated in the last paragraph that: “…whatever its intellectual pedigree, the idea that governments should be responsible for promoting happiness is always a threat to human freedom”.
The writer believes that if governments take responsibility for increasing the happiness of the population, then people will lose their freedom. The writer is definitely against this aim.
Here, increase the happiness = promoting happiness
Answer Key – Book Review
Cambridge IELTS 13 Test 4 Answer Key, Reading Passage 3
Book Review Reading Answers
36. NOT GIVEN
38. NOT GIVEN
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