Cambridge IELTS 14, Test 1, Reading Passage 3: Motivational Factors and the Hospitality Industry Solution with Answer Key

Cambridge IELTS 14, Reading Test 1, Passage 3 “Motivational factors and the hospitality industry” Solution with Answer Key. Here we will discuss detailed explanation of all the questions of the passage. Here is step by step Solution with Tips and Strategies.


Motivational Factors and the Hospitality Industry

** Questions 27-31 (Matching names of people with their ideas or statements)

Tips:  How to solve information/statement matching?


Question 27: Hotel managers need to know what would encourage good staff to remain.

Solution: Keywords: hotel managers, need to know, encourage, good staff, remain.
Now,  scan in paragraph 8, first and last line.  It is essential for hotel management to develop HRM practices that enable them to inspire and retain competent employees.” . .(Enz and Siguaw in 2000) . .. . .. “This implies that it is beneficial for hotels managers to understand what practices are most favourable to increase employee satisfaction and retention.”
Key Note:  inspire = encourage, retention = staff to remain.

Answer:  E (Enz and Siguaw)


Question 28: The actions of managers may make staff feel they shouldn’t move to a different employer.

Solution: Keywords:  actions, make staff feel, shouldn’t move, different employer.
Now, scan in paragraph 5, Line 1 – “Ng and Sorensen (2008) demonstrated that when managers provide recognition to employees, motivate employees to work together, and remove obstacles preventing effective performance, employees feel more obligated to stay with the company.”
Key Note: employees feel more obligated to stay with the company = staff feel they shouldn’t move to a different employer
Answer: D (Ng and Sorensen)

Question 29: Little is done in the hospitality industry to help workers improve their skills.
Solution: Keywords: little, done, hospitality, help workers, improve skills
Now, scan in paragraph 4, line 1. “Lucas also points out that ‘the substance of HRM practices does not appear to be designed to foster constructive relations with employees or to represent a management approach that enables developing and drawing out the full potential of people, . .. .”
The lines suggest that such HRM practices does very little (or nothing) to help the employees hone (sharpen or improve) their full potential
Answer: B (Lucas)

Question 31: Dissatisfaction with pay is not the only reason why hospitality workers change jobs.
Solution: Keywords: Dissatisfaction, pay, not, only reason, hospitality workers change jobs.
Now, in paragraph no. 9 the writer mentions the statement of Maroudas and others, “as achievement and recognition. When these factors are
unfavorable, job dissatisfaction may result. Significantly, though, just fulling these needs does not result in satisfaction, but only in the reduction of dissatisfaction.”
Then, in paragraph 10, there is another remark by Maroudas and others. “Employees also have intrinsic motivation needs or motivators, which
include such factors as achievement and recognition. Unlike extrinsic factors, motivator factors may ideally result in job satisfaction.”
These lines suggest that job dissatisfaction does not come only from pay, rather it may arise from other factors such as achievement and

Answer: C (Maroudas et al.)


**Questions 32-35  (YES, NO, NOT GIVEN)
Tips: Step by step techniques to solve True, False, Not Given questions

Question 32: One reason for high staff turnover in the hospitality industry is poor morale.
Solution: Keywords: high staff turnover, poor morale.
Now, in paragraph 4, line 4-7. The writer gives account of the research done by Maroudas and others (2008). The lines say, “In addition, or maybe as a result, high employee turnover has been a recurring problem throughout the hospitality industry. Among the many cited reasons are low compensation, inadequate benefits, poor working conditions and compromised employee morale and attitudes.”
Answer: YES.  ** (Please read step by step solution)

Question 33: Research has shown that staff have a tendency to dislike their workplace.
Solution: Keywords: staff, have, tendency, dislike, workplace.
Now, in paragraph 6. The writer gives account of the research done by Spector and others in 2000.
“While it seems likely that employees’ reactions to their job characteristics could be affected by a predisposition to view their work environment negatively, no evidence exists to support this hypothesis.” So, the lines clarify the point that there is no proof (no evidence exists to support this hypothesis) that workers view their workplace negatively. The information contradicts with the given question.

Answer: No

Question 34: An improvement in working conditions and job security makes staff satisfied with their jobs.
Solution: Keywords: improvement, working conditions, job security, satisfied.
Now, In paragraph 9, the writer gives reference to Herzberg (1966) who showed that when factors like working conditions and job security “… are
unfavorable, job dissatisfaction may result.”. Then the writer provides the findings of Maroudas and other, 2008. “Significantly, though, just filling these needs does not result in satisfaction, but only . . .. …” So, the lines are contradictory to question. Improving working conditions and job security does not make staff satisfied with their jobs.
Answer: NO

Question 35: Staff should be allowed to choose when they take breaks during the working day.
Solution: Keywords for this question: should be allowed, choose, take breaks,
There is NO INFORMATION regarding taking breaks during the working days in this passage.

Questions 36-40 (Completing summary with ONE WORD ONLY):

Tips: Step by step guide how to solve summery with or without wordlist

Question 36: Tews, Michel and Stafford carried out research on staff in an American chain of ____________.
Solution: Keywords: Tews, Michel and Stafford, American chain

Now, in paragraph 11, Line 1-3, “For example, Tews, Michel and Stafford (2013) conducted a study focusing on staff from a chain of themed restaurants in the United States.
Answer: restaurants  **(Please read step by step solution)

Question 37: They discovered that activities designed for staff to have fun improved their ___________,
Solution: Keywords: activities designed for staff, have fun, improved
Now,  in paragraph 11, Line 3 the writer says, “ It was found that fun activities had a favourable impact on performance . . .. .”
Answer: performance

Question 38: and that management involvement led to lower staff ___________.
Solution: Keywords: management involvement, lower
Now, in paragraph 11, line 4, the author says, “. . .. and manager support for fun had a favourable impact in reducing turnover.

Key Note: reducing = lower, manager Support – management involvement
Answer: turnover

Question 39 and 40: They also found that the activities needed to t with both the company’s ____________ and the _______________ of the staff.
Solution: Keywords: activities, needed to fit with both, company’s
Now, in paragraph 11, line 4-6, The writer says, “Their findings support the view that fun may indeed have a beneficial effect, but the framing of that fun must be carefully aligned with both organizational goals and employee characteristics.”
Key Note:  activities needed to fit with = must be carefully aligned with, company = organization, staff = employee.

39. goals
40. characteristics

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