Cambridge IELTS 15, Test 4, Reading Passage 3: Environmental Practices of Big Businesses, Solution with Answer Key

Cambridge IELTS 15, Test 4: Reading Passage 3 – Environmental Practices of Big Businesses with Answer Key. Here we will discuss detailed explanation of all the questions of the passage. Here is step by step Solution with Tips and Strategies. This post is for educational purpose only. If you find difficulties in reading passage to find the right answer in the exam, just read the post carefully. Tips and strategies will help you find the right answer.

 

Environmental Practices of Big Businesses

IELTS Cambridge 15, Test 4, Academic Reading Module, Reading Passage 3

 

QUESTIONS 27-31: COMPLETE THE SUMMARY USING THE LIST OF WORDS, A-J, BELOW.

** Tips: How to Completing Summaries with and without a wordlist in IELTS Reading Module?

 

27. Answer: D

28. Answer: E

Key words: lack, governments, public

In paragraph 1 we find: “When government regulation is effective, and when the public is environmentally aware, environmentally clean businesses may out-compete dirty ones”.  The last sentence of paragraph 1 states that: “the reverse is likely to be true if government regulation is ineffective and if the public doesn’t care”. The term ‘the reverse’ here refers to dirty businesses out-competing environmentally clean ones. In other words, ineffective government regulation and an indifferent public could lead to environmental problems. Ineffective government regulation can be paraphrased into ‘lack of control by governments’; and ‘the public doesn’t care’ can be paraphrased into ‘lack of public involvement’.

  • control = regulation
  • Answer: 28. E; 29. F

29. Answer: F

Key words: lack, governments, public

In paragraph 1 we find: “When government regulation is effective, and when the public is environmentally aware, environmentally clean businesses may out-compete dirty ones”.  The last sentence of paragraph 1 states that: “the reverse is likely to be true if government regulation is ineffective and if the public doesn’t care”. The term ‘the reverse’ here refers to dirty businesses out-competing environmentally clean ones. In other words, ineffective government regulation and an indifferent public could lead to environmental problems. Ineffective government regulation can be paraphrased into ‘lack of control by governments’; and ‘the public doesn’t care’ can be paraphrased into ‘lack of public involvement’.

  • control = regulation
  • Answer: 28. E; 29. F

30. Answer: H

Key words: environmental, problems, destruction

We need to find examples of two environmental problems caused by ‘lack of control by governments and lack of public involvement’. Paragraph 1 mentions:

  • “an unmanaged fishery without quotas”, which means that fishing is done without limit. This can also be called ‘overfishing’.
  • “international logging companies […] with corrupt officials and unsophisticated landowners”. This refers to logging companies that overexploit the tropical rainforests with the backup of officials and landowners. Thus, this can be called ‘destruction of trees’.
  • Answer: 30. H; 31. B

31. Answer: B

Key words: environmental, problems, destruction

We need to find examples of two environmental problems caused by ‘lack of control by governments and lack of public involvement’. Paragraph 1 mentions:

  • “an unmanaged fishery without quotas”, which means that fishing is done without limit. This can also be called ‘overfishing’.
  • “international logging companies […] with corrupt officials and unsophisticated landowners”. This refers to logging companies that overexploit the tropical rainforests with the backup of officials and landowners. Thus, this can be called ‘destruction of trees’.
  • Answer: 30. H; 31. B

QUESTIONS 32-34: CHOOSE THE CORRECT LETTER, A, B, C OR D.

** Tips: How To Solve Multiple Choice Questions in IELTS Reading Module?

32. Answer: C could be prevented by the action of ordinary people

Key words: idea, third, paragraph, environmental, damage

Paragraph 3 emphasizes the “ultimate responsibility of the public”. The public can make destructive policies “unprofitable and illegal”, which means that they can prevent or hinder wrong actions. They can also “make sustainable environmental policies profitable”, which means they can promote good actions. Thus, the main idea of this paragraph is that environmental damage could be prevented by the action of ordinary people.

  • ordinary people = the public
  • Answer: C

33. Answer: D influence the environmental policies of businesses and governments

Key words: fourth, paragraph, ways, public

Paragraph 4 mentions several actions to help the environment, such as suing environmentally harmful businesses, buying sustainably harvested products or pressing governments to enforce good environmental regulations. Because these are not individual actions directly impacting the environment but rather actions imposed on other people, A is incorrect. B is irrelevant because no information about learning is given. The same goes for C – specific environmental disasters are mentioned, but this is in reference to suing businesses, not raising awareness. The only appropriate answer is D, because the actions listed above influence the policies of businesses and governments.

  • Answer: D.

34. Answer: B A fast-food company forced their meat suppliers to follow the law

Key words: pressure, exerted, business,  BSE

By skimming “BSE”, we can find the information we need in paragraph 5. Then, we must find which sentence mentions “big business” and what pressure that business exerted. We find that “when a major fast-food company then made the same demands […], the meat industry complied within weeks”. Here, ‘the same demands’ refer to the FDA’s demand that the meat industry must follow the rules and abandon practices associated with the risk of BSE. Thus, it can be understood that a fast-food company pressured the meat industry, or meat suppliers, to follow the FDA regulations.

  • big business = major company
  • law = rules
  • Answer: B.

QUESTIONS 35-39: DO THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS AGREE WITH THE CLAIMS OF THE WRITER IN READING PASSAGE 3?

** Tips: How To Solve Yes No Not Given Question in IELTS Reading Module?

 

35. Answer: YES

Key words: public, fund, environmental, practices

In paragraph 6, the author believes that “the public must accept […] higher prices for products to cover the added costs, if any, of sound environmental practices”.

By saying that the public should pay for the added costs of good practices, the author means that they should fund such practices with their money. Thus, this statement agrees with the author’s opinion.

  • good environmental practices = sound environmental practices
  • Answer: YES.

36. Answer: NOT GIVEN

Key words: contrast, moral, principles, businesses

Still in paragraph 6, the author mentions that businesses will not apply moral principles without government regulations to deal with environmental problems. There is no information regarding the moral principles of different businesses. Thus, the answer is NOT GIVEN.

  • Answer: NOT GIVEN.

37. Answer: NO

Key words: distinction, acceptable, unacceptable, behavior

It is stated in the last paragraph that “My conclusion is not a moralistic one about who is right or wrong, admirable or selfish, a good guy or a bad guy”. Thus, the author does not want to make a clear distinction between right (acceptable behaviour) and wrong (unacceptable behaviour). So the statement contradicts the author’s view.

  • Answer: NO.

38. Answer: YES

Key words: public, successfully, influenced, businesses, past

There are two relevant sentences in the last paragraph:“In the past, businesses have changed when the public came to expect and require different behaviour”. Secondly: “I predict that in the future, just as in the past, changes in public attitudes will be essential for changes in businesses’ environmental practices”. The sentences mean that businesses were influenced by the public’s expectations and requirements.

  • Answer: YES.

39. Answer: NOT GIVEN

Key words: future, businesses, concern, environment

The author predicts in the last paragraph that in the future, “In the future…changes in public attitudes will be essential for changes in businesses’ environmental practices”. However, there is no information saying that businesses will show more or less concern for the environment. Thus, the answer for this is NOT GIVEN.

  • Answer: NOT GIVEN.

QUESTIONS 40: CHOOSE THE CORRECT LETTER, A, B, C OR D.

40. Answer: D Are big businesses to blame for the damage they cause the environment?

This passage discusses the blame for environmental issues. However, the author raises a different viewpoint from conventional ones, and has made this clear throughout the passage: “It is easy for the rest of us to blame a business” (paragraph 2); “Our blaming of businesses also ignores the ultimate responsibility of the public” (paragraph 3); “I place the ultimate responsibility for business practices harming the public on the public itself” (paragraph 7).

Thus, the author wants to look at the problem from the perspective of the responsibility of the public, and contends that businesses are not the only ones to blame. Thus, the most appropriate subheading must be D – ‘Are big businesses to blame for the damage they cause the environment?”.

  • Answer: D.

 

 

Answer Key – Environmental Practices of Big Businesses

Environmental Practices of Big Businesses Reading Answers

27. D
28. E
29. F
30. H
31. B
32. C
33. D
34. B
35. YES
36. NOT GIVEN
37. NO
38. YES
39. NOT GIVEN
40. D

 

 

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