Cambridge IELTS 13, Test 2, Reading Passage 2: Oxytocin, Solution With Answer Key
Oxytocin Solution with Answer Key – Cambridge IELTS 13, Test 2: Reading Passage 2. Here we will discuss detailed explanation of all the questions of the passage. Here is step by step Solution with Tips and Strategies. This post is for educational purpose only. If you find difficulties in reading passage to find the right answer in the exam, just read the post carefully. Tips and strategies will help you find the right answer.
IELTS Reading Passage Solution
IELTS Cambridge 13, Test 2, Academic Reading Module, Reading Passage 2
Questions 14-17. Locating Paragraph or Information Matching
** Tips (link details): How To Solve Information Matching or Locating Paragraph In IELTS Reading Module?
Questions 14. REFERENCE TO RESEARCH SHOWING THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF OXYTOCIN ON PEOPLE
Keywords: research, beneficial effects
Now, one of the key words to note is ‘beneficial’. The first reference to research is in paragraph B. This was in 2005: “The study was the start of research into the effects of oxytocin on human interactions”. This was followed by other studies: “These follow-up studies have shown that after a sniff of the hormone, people become more charitable, better at reading emotions on others’ faces and at communicating constructively in arguments”. All of these, we can say, are beneficial effects.
The paragraph concludes: “Together, the results fuelled the view that oxytocin universally enhanced the positive aspects of our social nature”.
Here, beneficial effects = positive aspects
Answer: paragraph B.
Questions 15. REASONS WHY THE EFFECTS OF OXYTOCIN ARE COMPLEX
Keywords: reasons, effects, complex
We are looking for information about the effects of oxytocin, and the reasons why these effects are complex. The first sentence of paragraph F suggests that we might find the information in this paragraph: “Perhaps we should not be surprised that the oxytocin story has become more perplexing”. If something is ‘perplexing’, we have difficulties in understanding it, because it is complicated/complex.
Then, we find the answer in the statement by Sue Carter, who summarises the reasons: “It (oxytocin) affects primitive parts of the brain like the amygdala, so it’s going to have many effects on just about everything”.
Something which has many effects on almost everything is obviously complex.
Answer : paragraph F.
Questions 16. MENTION OF A PERIOD IN WHICH OXYTOCIN ATTRACTED LITTLE SCIENTIFIC ATTENTION
Keywords: period, little, scientific attention
In paragraph B, Heinrichs describes the experiment which he and his team conducted. “The study was the start of research into the effects of oxytocin on human interactions. ‘For eight years, it was quite a lonesome field’, Heinrichs recalls. Now, everyone is interested’.” Scientists, therefore, did not pay much attention to oxytocin during this period of 8 years, but then they did become interested.
Answer: paragraph B.
Questions 17. REFERENCE TO PEOPLE IGNORING CERTAIN ASPECTS OF THEIR RESEARCH DATA
Keywords: ignoring, aspects, research data
In paragraph E, we are told that Bartz looked again at some previous studies: “Bartz has recently shown that in almost half of the existing research results, oxytocin only influenced certain individuals or in certain circumstances. Where once researchers took no notice of such findings, now a more nuanced understanding of oxytocin’s effects is propelling investigations down new lines”.
Here, ignoring = taking no notice. research data = findings;
Answer: paragraph E.
QUESTIONS 18-20: MATCH EACH RESEARCH FINDING WITH THE CORRECT RESEARCHER, A-F.
** Tips (link details): How To Solve Matching Statements With Correct Theory In IELTS Reading?
Questions 18. PEOPLE ARE MORE TRUSTING WHEN AFFECTED BY OXYTOCIN
Keywords: trusting, affected
Now, we find the answer when we read about the experiment in paragraph B. Markus Heinrichs “asked volunteers to do an activity in which they could invest money with an anonymous person who was not guaranteed to be honest. The team found that participants who had sniffed oxytocin via a nasal spray beforehand invested more money than those who received a placebo instead”. So, those people who took oxytocin invested more money than those who did not. This means that they trusted the anonymous (and possibly dishonest) person more than the participants who took no oxytocin.
Answer: A (Markus Heinrichs).
Questions 19. OXYTOCIN INCREASES PEOPLE’S FEELINGS OF JEALOUSY
Keywords: increases, jealousy
Now, the experiment described in paragraph C shows that “ when volunteers played a competitive game, those who inhaled the hormone showed more pleasure when they beat other players, and felt more envy when others won”.
The volunteers who took oxytocin felt more jealousy when others won the game. This research was carried out by Simone Shamay-Tsoory.
Here, jealousy = envy
Answer : B (Simone Shamay-Tsoory).
Questions 20. THE EFFECT OF OXYTOCIN VARIES FROM ONE TYPE OF PERSON TO ANOTHER
Keywords: effect, varies
Now, we are looking for an experiment in which oxytocin has different effects on different people. We find this in paragraph C. Bartz found this in her research: “What’s more, administering oxytocin also has sharply contrasting outcomes depending on a person’s disposition. Jennifer Bartz from Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, found that it improves people’s ability to read emotions, but only if they are not very socially adept to begin with. Her research also shows that oxytocin in fact reduces cooperation in subjects who are particularly anxious or sensitive to rejection”.
In other words, the effects are different for different people.
Here, effect = outcome; varies = contrasting
Answer: C (Jennifer Bartz).
QUESTIONS 21-26: COMPLETE THE SUMMARY BELOW.
** Tips (link details): How To Solve Completing Summaries with and without a Wordlist in IELTS Reading Module?
Questions 21. THE EARLIEST FINDINGS ABOUT OXYTOCIN AND BONDING CAME FROM RESEARCH INVOLVING……………
Keywords: earliest, findings, bonding
Now, the first research is mentioned in paragraph A, and it is clear that the studies linked oxytocin and bonding behaviour in animals: “It was through various studies focusing on animals that scientists first became aware of the influence of oxytocin. They discovered that it helps reinforce the bonds between prairie voles….”
The link between oxytocin and bonding behaviour came, therefore, from the first studies into oxytocin, which were carried out on animals – prairie voles and sheep.
Here, bonding = reinforce the bonds; research = studies.
Questions 22. IT WAS ALSO DISCOVERED THAT HUMANS PRODUCE OXYTOCIN DURING …………….
Keywords: humans, produce
Now,the answer is also given in paragraph A. After discussing the effects of oxytocin on animals, the author continues: “It is also released by women in childbirth, strengthening the attachment between mother and baby”.
Thus, we are told that humans (mothers) produce oxytocin when they have babies, helping in the bonding process.
Here, produce = release
Questions 23. AN EXPERIMENT IN 2005, IN WHICH PARTICIPANTS WERE GIVEN EITHER OXYTOCIN OR A ………….. , REINFORCED THE BELIEF THAT THE HORMONE HAD A POSITIVE EFFECT.
Keywords: experiment, 2005, participants, positive effect
Now, we find these key words in paragraph B: “Oxytocin’s role in human behaviour first emerged in 2005. In a groundbreaking experiment, Markus Heinrichs….asked volunteers to do an activity in which they could invest money with an anonymous person who was not guaranteed to be honest. The team found that participants who had sniffed oxytocin…invested more money than those who received a placebo instead” More experiments were then done: “Together the results fuelled the view that oxytocin universally enhanced the positive aspects of our social nature”.
So, participants were given either oxytocin or a placebo (= a harmless substance, which they believed was oxytocin).
Here, reinforced the belief = fuelled the view.
Questions 24. A STUDY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF HAIFA WHERE PARTICIPANTS TOOK PART IN A ………………. , REVEALED THE NEGATIVE EMOTIONS WHICH OXYTOCIN CAN TRIGGER.
Keywords: Haifa, negative emotions
Now, we find these key words in paragraph C. “Simone Shamay-Tsoory at the University of Haifa, Israel, found that when volunteers played a competitive game, those who inhaled the hormone showed more pleasure when they beat other players, and felt more envy when others won”.
In this study, participants had to play a game, and their emotions were recorded when they won or lost. If they lost, they felt more envy (a negative emotion) after they had taken oxytocin.
Here, participants = volunteers; took part in = played.
Questions 25. A STUDY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ANTWERP SHOWED PEOPLE’S LACK OF WILLINGNESS TO HELP ……………. WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF OXYTOCIN.
Keywords: Antwerp, lack of willingness, help
The University of Antwerp is mentioned in paragraph D. “Studies conducted byCarolyn DeClerck of the University of Antwerp, Belgium, revealed that people who had received a dose of oxytocin actually became less cooperative when dealing with complete strangers”.
Thus, after taking (a dose of) oxytocin, people were less willing to help (= became less cooperative to) strangers.
Here, showed = revealed
Questions 26. MEANWHILE, RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF AMSTERDAM REVEALED THAT PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN GIVEN OXYTOCIN CONSIDER……………… THAT ARE FAMILIAR TO THEM IN THEIR OWN COUNTRY TO HAVE MORE POSITIVE ASSOCIATIONS THAN THOSE FROM OTHER CULTURES”.
Keywords: Amsterdam, familiar, positive associations
Now, the University of Amsterdam is also mentioned in paragraph D. “Carsten De Dreu at the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands discovered that volunteers given oxytocin showed favouritism: Dutch men became quicker to associate positive words with Dutch names than with foreign ones…”
Therefore, in the study, Dutch names were considered to have more positive associations, in preference to foreign names (= names from other cultures).
Answer Key – Oxytocin
Cambridge IELTS 13 Test 2 Answer Key, Reading Passage 2
Oxytocin Reading Answers