Cambridge IELTS 9, Test 3, Reading Passage 3 – Information Theory – The Big Idea, Solution With Answer Key
Cambridge IELTS 9 Test 3 Reading Passage 3 Information Theory The Big Idea Solution with Answer Key. Here we will discuss detailed explanation of all the questions of the passage. You will get step by step Solution with Tips and Strategies. This post is for educational purpose only. If you find difficulties in reading passage to find the right answer in the exam, just read the post carefully. Tips and strategies will help you find the right answer.
Cambridge IELTS 9 Test 3 Reading Passage 3 Information Theory The Big Idea – Explanation
Solution of IELTS Cambridge 9 Test 3 Academic Reading Module, Reading Passage3
PASSAGE 3: Information Theory – The Big Idea (View Full Passage Here)
Questions 27-32 (Identifying information)
** Tips (link details): How To Solve Information Matching or Locating Paragraph In IELTS Reading Module?
Question 27: an explanation of the factors affecting the transmission of information.
Keywords: factors affecting, transmission of information,
Now, in paragraph D, lines 1-5, “Noise usually means unwanted sounds which interfere with genuine information. Information theory generalises this idea via theorems that capture the effects of noise with mathematical precision. In particular, Shannon showed that noise
sets a limit on the rate at which information can pass along communication channels while remaining error-free… .. .”
Here, transmission = pass along communication channels;
So, the lines suggest that factors such as noise can affect transmission of information.
Question 28: an example of how unnecessary information can be omitted
Keywords: unnecessary information, omitted,
Now, in paragraph F where the author talks about the solution of excluding unwanted information. In lines 1-4 the author states, “Shannon also laid the foundations of more efficient ways of storing information, by stripping out superfluous (redundant) bits from data which
contributed little real information. As mobile phone text messages like ‘I CN C U’ show, it is often possible
to leave out a lot of data without losing much meaning.”
Here, stripping out superfluous (redundant) bits from data & to leave out a lot of data means unnecessary data or information can be omitted.
Question 29: a reference to Shannon’s attitude to fame
Keywords: Shannon’s attitude, fame,
Now, in paragraph B where we find this line in the middle, “While at Bell Laboratories, Shannon
developed information theory, but shunned the resulting acclaim.”
Here, shunned means turned away from. It means Shannon developed information theory but he avoided the fame he got from his invention. He disliked it.
Question 30: details of a machine capable of interpreting incomplete information
Keywords: machine, capable, interpreting, incomplete information,
Now, in paragraph E, lines 5-7, “Other codes have become part of everyday life – such as the Universal Product Code, or bar code, which uses a simple error-detecting system that ensures supermarket check-out lasers can read the price even on, say, a crumpled bag
Here, machine indicates to check-out lasers that can interpret (read) incomplete information (crumpled bag of crisps).
Question 31: a detailed account of an incident involving information theory
Keywords: detailed account, incident, information theory,
Now, in paragraph A where we come to know about the problem faced by Voyager I which received instructions through a radio signal from the earth to use its spare parts to operate correctly. The whole paragraph is a detailed description of how NASA was able to send radio signals light years away to the Voyager I prove.
Question 32: a reference to what Shannon initially intended to achieve in his research
Keywords: Shannon, initially, intended to achieve, his research,
In paragraph C, the writer indicates, “He (Shannon) set out with an apparently simple aim: to pin down the precise meaning of the concept of ‘information’.”
Here, set out with an apparently simple aim = initially intended to achieve;
Questions 33-37: (Note completion)
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Title of the note: The Voyager I Space Probe
Question 33-34: The probe transmitted pictures of both 33. _________ and _________, then left the 34. _________.
Keywords: transmitted pictures, both, left,
Now, As the word before question 33 is ‘both’, we can understand that the answers for question no. 33 will be same kind of things. If we look closely at paragraph A, we can find the description of Voyager I Space Probe’s mention. In lines 2-4, the writer says, “The space probe, Voyager I, launched in 1977, had sent back spectacular images of Jupiter and Saturn and then soared out of the Solar System on a one-way mission to the stars.”
Here, sent back = transmitted, images = pictures, soared out = left,
33. Jupiter, Saturn
34. Solar System
Question 35: Scientists feared that both the ________ and ________ were about to stop working.
Keywords: Scientists, feared, both, about to stop working,
Now, in paragraph A, lines 5-7, “Sensors and circuits were on the brink of failing and NASA experts realised that they had to do something or lose contact with their probe forever.”
Here, on the brink of failing = about to stop working,
Answers: sensors, circuits,
Special Note: remember, you cannot write sensors and circuits as your answers. It is because the word ‘and’ is already present in the question. In the IELTS listening and Reading Test, it is PROHIBITED to write any word/words which is/are already written in the question.
Question 36: The only hope was to tell the probe to replace them with __________ -but distance made communication with the probe difficult.
Keywords: only hope, replace, distance, made communication, probe, difficult,
Now, in paragraph A the writer talks about the solution of Voyager I problem. In lines 7-8 the author writes, “The solution was to get a message to Voyager I to instruct it to use spares to change the failing parts.”
Here, solution = the only hope, change = replace,
Question 37: A ________ was used to transmit the message at the speed of light.
Keywords: transmit, message, speed of light
Now, at the end of paragraph A, lines 9-12, “By means of a radio dish belonging to NASA’s Deep Space Network, the message was sent out into the depths of space. Even traveling at the speed of light, it took over 11 hours to reach its target, far beyond the speed of Pluto.”
Here, the message was sent out = transmit the message;
So, a radio dish was used to send out message to Voyager I.
Answer: radio dish
Questions 38-40: (TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN)
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Question 38: The concept of describing something as true or false was the starting point for Shannon in his attempt to send messages over distance.
Keywords: describing, starting point, true or false, the starting point, Shannon,
Now, in paragraph C, lines 3-6, “He set out with an apparently simple aim: to pin down the precise meaning of the concept of ‘information’. The most basic form of information, Shannon argued, is whether something is true or false – which can be captured in the binary unit, or ‘bit’, of the form 1 or 0.”
Here, set out = the starting point,
The lines clearly agree with the statement.
Question 39: The amount of information that can be sent in a given time period is determined with reference to the signal strength and noise level.
Keywords: the amount of information, sent, the signal strength and noise level,
Now, the answer is in paragraph D as Shannon showed that the rate told us how much information passed in a given period of time. “Shannon showed that noise sets a limit on the rate at which information can pass along communication channels while remaining error-free. This rate depends on the relative strengths of the signal and noise traveling down the communication channel, on its capacity (its
Question 40: Products have now been developed which can convey more information than Shannon had anticipated as possible.
Keywords: convey more information, Shannon anticipated;
Now, at the end of paragraph E, the author says, “As recently as 1993, engineers made a major breakthrough by discovering so-called turbo codes – which come very close to Shannon’s ultimate limit for the maximum rate that data can be transmitted reliably, and now play a key role in the mobile videophone revolution.”
This means the products of present time came close to what Shannon had anticipated, but could not convey more information. They could not exceed Shannon’s expectations.
Cambridge IELTS 9 Test 3 Reading Passage 3 Answer Keys
Information Theory – The Big Idea Reading Passage Answers Keys
33. In any order; both are required
34. Solar System
35. In any order; both are required
37. Radio dish